Luxembourg
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currency: Euro (EUR)
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Luxembourg profile
landlocked;
the only Grand Duchy in the world
Luxembourg history
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands.

It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy.

Full independence was attained in 1867.

Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year.

In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
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Conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Conventional short form: Luxembourg

Local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

Local short form: Luxembourg
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Luxembourg's capital city is Luxembourg
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Luxembourg Constitution:

17 October 1868; occasional revisions
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Luxembourg population growth rate: 1.14%
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Luxembourg highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
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Luxembourg lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
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About 27% of Luxembourg's land is arable.
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Sauer River is the Longest River in Luxembourg
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Luxembourg birth rate is 12 births/1,000 population
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Luxembourg infant mortality rate is 4 deaths/1,000 live births
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Luxembourg fertility rate is 1.77 children born/woman
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Luxembourg climate:

modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
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Top 10 cities of Luxembourg with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Luxembourg: 76,420
2. Esch-sur-Alzette: 28,000
3. Differdange: 19,005
4. Dudelange: 17,618
5. Ettelbruck: 7,364
6. Diekirch: 6,165
7. Wiltz: 4,587
8. Echternach: 4,507
9. Rumelange: 4,495
10. Grevenmacher: 3,966
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Luxembourg ethnic groups:

Luxembourger - 63.1%
Portuguese - 13.3%
French - 4.5%
Italian - 4.3%
German - 2.3%
Other EU - 7.3%
Other - 5.2%
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Luxembourg Exports:

machinery and equipment
steel products
chemicals
rubber products
glass
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Luxembourg Imports:

minerals
metals
foodstuffs
quality consumer goods
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unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
There are 3 districts.

They are:

1. Diekirch
2. Grevenmacher
3. Luxembourg
Political parties and leaders:
Alternative Democratic Reform Party (ADR) - Jean SCHOOS
Christian Social People's Party (CSV) - Michel WOLTER
the Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) - Fabienne LENTZ and David WAGNER
Democratic Party (DP) - Xavier BETTEL
Green Party - Sam TANSON and Christian GOEBEL
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP) - Alex BODRY
Other minor parties